Skip to main content

What Formulas are Used to Calculate Growth Rates?

Note that because FRED uses levels and rounded data as published by the source, calculations of percentage changes and/or growth rates in some series may not be identical to those in the original releases.

The following formulas are used:

Change:  change formula

 

Change from Year Ago: change from year ago formula1

 

Percent Change:  percent change formula1
Percent Change from Year Ago: percent change from year ago formula1

 

Compounded Annual Rate of Change: compounded annual rate of change formula1

 

Continuously Compounded Rate of Change: continuously compounded rate of change formula

 

Continuously Compounded Annual Rate of Change: continuously compounded annual rate of change formula

 

Natural Log: natural log

Notes:

x at time period t is the value of series x at time period t.

'n_obs_per_yr' is the number of observations per year. The number of observations per year differs by frequency:

Daily, 260 (no values on weekends)
Annual, 1
Monthly, 12
Quarterly, 4
Biweekly, 26
Weekly,52

'ln' represents the natural logarithm.

Posted in Understanding the Data, Frequently Asked Questions
FRED Economic Data | St. Louis Fed


Subscribe to the FRED newsletter


Follow us

Twitter logo Google Plus logo Facebook logo YouTube logo LinkedIn logo
Back to Top