Note that because FRED uses levels and rounded data as published by the source, calculations of percentage changes and/or growth rates in some series may not be identical to those in the original releases.
The following formulas are used:
Percent Change from Year Ago:
Compounded Annual Rate of Change:
Continuously Compounded Rate of Change:
Continuously Compounded Annual Rate of Change:
is the value of series x at time period t.
'n_obs_per_yr' is the number of observations per year. The number of observations per year differs by frequency:
Daily, 260 (no values on weekends)
'ln' represents the natural logarithm.