Note that because FRED uses levels and rounded data as published by the source, calculations of percentage changes and/or growth rates in some series may not be identical to those in the original releases. The following formulas are used: Change: … Continue reading

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The NBER recession data is available at http://www.nber.org/cycles/cyclesmain.html. The monthly dates for the peaks and troughs are represented as daily dates in the charts as: Peak, Trough 1857-06-01, 1858-12-01 1860-10-01, 1861-06-01 1865-04-01, 1867-12-01 1869-06-01, 1870-12-01 1873-10-01, 1879-03-01 1882-03-01, 1885-05-01 1887-03-01, 1888-04-01 … Continue reading

Posted in Understanding the Data, Frequently Asked Questions

Data values are calculated in the following order: (i) frequency aggregation (if any), (ii) units transformation (if any; e.g., percent change), and (iii) any formula you may have created (e.g., the formula “a – b” would find the difference between … Continue reading

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When converting higher-frequency values to lower-frequency values, the average, sum, and end-of-period aggregation methods use the same number of decimal places as the original data. For example, the monthly values of 100.1 (Jan), 100.4 (Feb), and 100.9 (March) will be … Continue reading

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It is possible for higher-frequency periods to overlap lower-frequency periods. For example, a week can start in one month and end in the next month. In these cases, FRED frequency aggregation will include the higher-frequency value in only one of … Continue reading

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Except for the first and last observations, the average, sum, and end-of-period aggregation methods ignore any other missing values. For example, consider a daily series from 2003-06-01 to 2003-07-31 with a missing value for Friday 2000-07-04, the US Independence Day … Continue reading

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Higher-frequency data may not be available for an entire lower-frequency period. For example, a monthly data series may end in February. With only 2 of the 12 months of the year available, the converted annual value will be missing for … Continue reading

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Frequency aggregation converts higher-frequency data series into lower-frequency data series (e.g., from monthly data to annual data). In FRED, the highest data frequency is daily and the lowest data is annual. There are three aggregation methods available: Average: This method … Continue reading

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There are three ways to get to a data-source website. Option 1: Below a graph, go to the “NOTES” section. Next to “Source” (on the first line), click the source name (see the red box below) to go to the source’s … Continue reading

Posted in Understanding the Data

There are two ways to get to the website of a release. Option 1: Below a graph, go to the “NOTES” section. Next to “Release” (on the right-hand side of the first line), click the name of the release (see … Continue reading

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